Git Tutorial For Beginners

Git Tutorial

Being a programmer, one should also focus on script/ code management. It includes timely backup of the code among other activities. In an industry where you have peers which also contributes towards the same project, managing the code is a routine exercise. This git tutorial for beginners will teach you enough to work with git.

Git is a version control system which tracks the changes in the source code. This is a distributed system and any authorized team member can access it. A user can always pull the code from git to local machine, make changes and re-upload/push it to git. 

Similarly, if some other team members update the code on git, you can pull the changes and update the code in your local system.

 

Start With Git

 

Git is available in both GUI and CLI (Command Line Interface). This git tutorial will make use of CLI as it is convenient and extensively used. Git is available for Windows, Mac, and Linux.

 

This tutorial is created on Linux OS but the steps will be similar for all OS.

 

Install Git – On Linux

Since this tutorial is based on CLI, open the terminal and execute the following command:

 

sudo apt install git

 

Registration On Git Website

Head over to GIT and register using an email. Once registered successfully, login to the github.com.

 

Add Repository in Git

 

A repository or a repo is the folder which contains source files or a project. Let’s create the first repo in GIT and upload the first project. The assumption is that you already have an existing java project saved in your local machine.

 

Creating First Git Repo

 

We will upload the following existing SeleniumTest project to our git repository.

 

Upload project to git

 

While logged into your git account, click on the icon at the top right corner and select New RepositoryThe following page should get displayed:

 

First Git Repo

 

Provide any suitable Repository Name, Description and click on Create Repository button, keeping the default values. A URL pointing to this git repo should get generated, note down this URL.

 

First Git Repo URL

 

 

Configuring the SSH Key

 

Git is an online secure repository which restricts unauthorized access. SSH key should be created to ensure only the authorized user(s) has access to git. 

On git webpage, click on your Profile -> Settings and select SSH and GPG KeysClick New SSH Key button below SSH Keys section on the right. Enter any value for name.

 

Generating the SSH Key

 

Open your terminal and execute below code:

 

ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -C "email"

 

Replace the email with your git registered email id. Hit ENTER if asked for file name or passphraseA .pub file should get created. Open the file, copy its content and paste in the Keys text area on git Settings page below the name.

 

Pushing The Code For First Time

 

Go into the project folder to be pushed into git. Open the command prompt and execute the following code one by one.

 

1. git config

 

 

git config --global user.email "email"
git config --global user.name "username"

 

 

git configure

 

Update email and username with your git’s email and user name. This authentication is required to access the git.

 

2. Initialize git

 

This command is used to initialize the git. After executing below code a hidden .git folder should get created inside your main project folder.

 

git init

 

 

git init

 

 

3. Connecting to the git url

 

Recall the URL created after creating the first git repo. Execute git remote add origin <<git url>> and replace <<git url>> with your own.

 

git remote add origin https://github.com/codeshut/SeleniumTest.git

 

This will create a connection between your local folder and the online git repo. To check the status execute the following code.

 

git status

 

 

git status

 

git status will print the file/folder names that are updated and still not synced. In the above image, all the folders are displayed as they are not yet been pushed to the git repo.

 

4. Adding the first project

 

Execute the following code to add a complete folder to the git repo in one go.

 

git add .

 

The . indicate the current folder. To add a specific file, use the absolute path like /path/filename.java

You may again use the git status command to check the repo status. It should display the files waiting to be synced.

 

 

 

5. Committing the changes

 

This command is used to confirm the changes made by the user. You should also provide comments against your changes.

 

git commit -m 'comment here'

 

 

git status commit project

 

 

6. Pushing the code

 

Code/changes are still not pushed to the git. If you go to your repo’s git URL, you won’t see any code. Use below command to push the changes to git.

 

git push origin master

 

Enter your git user name and password upon prompt. It should push all the changes and code to the git repo.

 

git push

 

Go to the git URL and you should see the code is now available in git.

 

git first code push

 

 

Pulling The Code From Git

 

In case the code in git repo has been updated since you last commit your changes, use the following code.

 

git pull origin master

 

This should sync all the updated files from git repo to your local machine.

 

git pull

 

These are the basics which will get you through working with the git. Create a repo of your own and make a habit to upload all your code to it.

 

Author: Dhawal Joshi

A post-graduate in MCA, ISTQB & ITIL certified QA with more than 8 years of experience in QA working with a CMMI Level 5 organization as System Analyst. I started my automation journey with HP UFT(formerly known as QTP) and for the past few years, I am using Selenium for automation. I also have experience in Android Application Development, Java, HTML, and VBScript. When I am not working, I like to spend time with my family, cooking and learning new developments in IT.

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